Industrial Carbon Capture

Capture technologies, transportation, sequestration, CO2 to products and EOR

Almost every item of daily use such as steel products, plastics, food grains grown using fertilizers or cement and concrete used to make residential and commercial buildings involve the use or owe their origin to fossil fuels and are associated with carbon emissions. These “industries” account for 30% or more than 10 GT of CO2 emissions worldwide and are very difficult to decarbonize with renewables given the energy intensity and reliability required or the integral role of fossil fuels in the production process itself.

The role of Carbon Capture Utilization & Storage (CCUS) is critical to achieving deep & meaningful reductions of CO2 emissions from these hard-to-abate industries such as refineries, cement, iron & steel, power, chemicals & petrochemicals. CCUS technologies are commercially proven & established and, when appropriately integrated with upstream feedstock blending, capture point optimization & gas conditioning and downstream storage, EOR & even conversion, can lead to GT scale carbon capture at a commoditized level of cost capture of US$ 30 – 40/tonne. When combined with renewable energy or feedstocks such as biomass, plastics and MSW and extant policy and tax incentives prevalent in many geographies, CCUS can provide a scalable, sustainable and economically viable pathway to “net-negative” emissions.

Commercially proven industrial scale CCUS technologies can be broadly divided into two categories, pre-combustion or post-combustion technologies, depending on the carbon capture point or the CO2 source they target.

  • Pre-combustion capture: These technologies capture CO2 from industrial process/ fuel gases before combustion; such source gas streams typically have high CO2 concentration and partial pressure, making it possible to capture CO2 at very competitive costs, typically around US$ 30/tonne. With the right system design, the CO2 stripped (H2+CO) rich syngas can further be used for the production of low-carbon clean products such as CCGT power, blue hydrogen, chemicals (methanol & derivatives), ammonia/urea or DRI, thus making the carbon capture project a viable business proposition and essentially pay for itself.

  • Post-combustion capture: These technologies capture CO2 from fully combusted high volume & dilute flue gas streams and can handle large gas stream & CO2 volumes. However, due to the low CO2 concentration and partial pressure, post-combustion technologies involve high energy & utility consumption for regeneration of the CO2 solvent, large capture plant size and large plot requirements & footprint, leading to higher CO2 capture costs (typically above US$ 70/tonne).

  • Oxy-fuel combustion capture: This is the third category of carbon capture technologies that are still in the development stage and involves CO2 capture from gas streams combusted in pure oxygen.

While prima facie post-combustion technologies seem uncompetitive to pre-combustion carbon capture technologies, post-combustion technologies still have an important role to play in ensuring deep carbonization (90%+) of various industrial sectors. Dastur Energy is designing industrial carbon capture systems for a wide variety of industrial installations in North America, the Middle East and Asia, involving a combination and selection of different types of technology categories and types at various carbon capture points, combined with suitable gas conditioning and carbon disposition schemes. The goal is to ensure that the proposed schemes achieve deep decarbonization at scale with a competitive overall carbon capture cost offset with the revenues from EOR, by-product recovery or conversion into downstream products.

Dastur’s approach, while based on a deep understanding of technology and our IP, is business and system-driven, wresting on the following key tenets:

  • Determination of the most appropriate CO2 source & sink and the right CO2 capture volume, based on: gas stream characteristics; CO2 concentration, partial pressure & flow rate; disposition opportunities for EOR, storage or conversion; system integration of individual components for optimal techno-economics.

  • Independent and unbiased techno-economic comparison and assessment of the appropriateness of the various potential technology options such as chemical solvent-based absorption, physical solvent-based absorption, adsorption or cryogenic separation, including the comparison of the offerings of different technology providers.

  • Selection of the right capture technology for minimizing the capture cost and plot requirements, based on analysis of capture volume requirements, gas characteristics, utility availability & costs and energy.

  • Portfolio of value-added clean low-carbon products viz. power, hydrogen, methanol/derivatives, ammonia/urea, depending on in-plant & market demand.

  • Design suitable gas conditioning & treatment strategy, depending on the downstream product requirements.

  • Design viable and cost-effective CO2 disposition strategies based on available pathway options, commercial & technology readiness and market opportunity.

  • Design flexible and scalable transportation infrastructure (pipelines, ships, or trucks) based on CO2 volumes, end-use, distance and switching requirements.

Technology Pillars

Dastur’s approach, while based on a deep understanding of technology and our IP, is business and system-driven, wresting on the following key tenets: